|This article is about the manga. For other uses, see Hana Yori Dango.|
Boys over Flowers (
The series was first adapted into a series of audio dramas in 1993. It was followed by a 1995 film and a 1996 anime series. The manga was also made into several television series, including Meteor Garden (2001) in Taiwan, Hana Yori Dango (2005) in Japan, and Boys Over Flowers (2009) in South Korea. In 2018, a Chinese television adaptation of the manga premiered.
Tsukushi Makino is a lower-class student at the elite school, Eitoku Academy. Her life changes when she angers Tsukasa Domyoji, the leader of the F4. He ends up falling in love with her, though she completely hates him. Boys Over Flowers chronicles the ups-and-downs of their relationship as they become friends and eventually date.
Tsukushi Makino, who comes from a middle-class family, is a second-year student at the prestigious school, Eitoku Academy. The school is ruled by the F4, consisting of Tsukasa Domyoji, Rui Hanazawa, Sojiro Nishikado, and Akira Mimasaka. Tsukushi tries to ignore their antics until her friend angers Tsukasa. She stands up for her and receives a red card, which causes the other students to begin bullying her. Tsukushi fights back by declaring war on the F4. Tsukasa then sends some goons to assault her, but Rui saves her. The next day, she kicks Tsukasa in the face. He takes a liking to her afterwards and tries to impress her without much success. Meanwhile, three girls, namely Yuriko Asai, Minako Yamano, and Erika Ayuhara, become jealous of Tsukushi. They embarrass her at a party, while pretending to be her friend.
After humiliating Yuriko and her friends, Tsukushi gains new three enemies. To get revenge, they inform her about Rui's first love, Shizuka Todo, who will return soon. This comes as a shock to Tsukushi as she realizes she has developed a crush on Rui. After Shizuka returns, Tsukushi resolves to separate herself from the F4. Her childhood friend, Kazuya Aoike begins attending around the same time. Tsukasa, jealous of Kazuya, sends him a red card. A crowd of bullies chase him and Tsukushi until Rui protects her, which angers Tsukasa. He severs his friendship with Rui. Tsukushi stays home the next day due to a high fever. Tsukasa pays her a visit and offers to pay for to go on the school's trip. She promptly refuses, opting to go to Atami with Kazuya instead. The trip takes a turn for her, when Tsukasa and their classmates arrive there on his yacht.
Tsukushi accidentally kisses Tsukasa during the party on his yacht. She is devastated that her first kiss was not with someone she loved. The next day, she goes to return Shizuka's dress and witnesses Rui confess his feelings to her. Tsukasa and Kazuya come by shortly and start an impromptu cook-out. Tsukushi is grateful for the distraction. Sometime later, the fall term at Eitoku starts. Yuriko shows Tsukasa a video of Rui and Tsukushi. Tsukasa feels like a "fool," having thought that Tsukushi liked him. He goes on a rampage throughout the school and later targets Tsukushi. Tsukasa forces a kiss on her, only stopping when she begins to cry. Several days later, she attends Shizuka's birthday party with Kazuya and her best friend, Yuki Matsuoka. There she sees Tsukasa for the first time since the incident.
Following Shizuka's decision to return to France, Tsukushi thinks she may have a chance to win Rui for herself. She ultimately ends up pleading with Shizuka to stay in Japan for Rui's sake. Despite being mad at first, her interfering encourages Rui to follow Shizuka to France. Tsukasa later asks Tsukushi on a date, but she does not hear him. She is stilled confused when he tells her the time and place. That Sunday, she arrives four hours late and offers to treat him to tea. The two are then stuck in an elevator. Tsukasa develops a fever and Tsukushi takes care of him well into the morning. At school, the students now believe she and Tsukasa are dating. Neither clears up the misunderstanding. Later, her classmates take her dancing and she meets a foreigner. Tsukushi wakes up in a hotel room with no memory of the previous night. She resolves to keep it a secret.
Thomas, the foreigner, turns out to be an old friend of Tsukushi's new friend Sakurako Sanjo. He blackmails Tsukushi into seeing him again the next day. Meanwhile, she helps Sakurako get over her fear of boys by introducing her to the F4. Within a couple days, Tsukushi notices some odd changes in Sakurako. Yuki and her sister later take Tsukushi to a dance club, where she sees the supposed naive Sakurako. A photo of Tsukushi and Thomas circulates around school, leading Tsukushi to learn that nothing had actually happened and Sakurako was framing her. The next day, Tsukasa is shocked by the photo and walks away from Tsukushi, who is surrounded by bullies. Sakurako uses his moment of weakness to try to seduce him. He only realizes that Tsukushi was telling the truth and returns to her, saying "I believe you."
After rescuing Tsukushi, Tsukasa tells her that he loves her and then kisses her. The next day, Rui returns unannounced from France. Tsukasa claims to him that he and Tsukushi are dating. That afternoon, Thomas reveals Sakurako's past to Tsukushi. She defends Sakurako to their classmates the next day, though she has not yet forgiven her. In the meantime, Tsukushi becomes confused by Rui's flirty behavior towards her and other girls The same day, Tsukasa drags Tsukushi to his family's private island along with the F4 and their dates. The first night, Tsukushi runs into Rui on the beach while taking a walk. When she returns to the room, she lies to Tsukasa telling him she was alone. After learning about Shizuka's engagement, Tsukushi returns the next night. She confesses to Rui that she cannot stop thinking of him. Moved by her tears, he kisses her.
Tsukasa discovers Tsukushi and Tsukushi embracing, leaving him heartbroken. The next morning, he takes off in his jet, forcing everyone else to take Kazuya's boat home. When they finally return to Tokyo, Tsukasa kicks Rui out of the F4. Rui later asks Tsukushi on a date, which takes several awkward turns. Afterwards, he takes her to his house where he falls asleep. On her way home, she sees Tsukasa laughing with Sakurako. Tsukushi stands in a daze for a few minutes. A guy tries to flirt with her, but flees when a woman, Tsubaki Domyoji, scratches his car. Tsubaki drags Tsukushi to her house, despite her protests. Trying to hide, she becomes lost but Tsukasa eventually finds her. Tsubaki kicks him hard in the back, thinking he was coming on to Tsukushi. The next day, Tsukasa announces his plans to have Rui and Tsukushi expelled from school.
Tsubaki suggests they settle Tsukushi and Rui's expulsion through sports. They decide on a basketball match with Tsukasa, Akira, and Sojiro playing against Tsukushi, Rui, and Kazuya. That night, Tsukushi finds Tsukasa waiting for her. He promises to call off the match, if she says she loves him. She resists his advances and he gives up. The next day, the game begins. Tsukasa's team rapidly gains points, leading Rui to change his strategy by making Tsukasa jealous. It works and they are nearly tied, but Tsukushi misses the basket. At the last second, Tsukasa declares "I quit" and leaves. The others gather at the Domyojis' house afterwards to drink. Tsubaki, Akira, and Sojiro lock Rui and Tsukushi in a room. There he confesses that he was using her to forget Shizuka. Tsukushi is sad by this revelation, but decides she has "no regrets."
The following morning, Tsukushi learns that her father has lost his job, requiring the family to move out of their home. They put all their hopes into Tsukushi marrying rich. She instead sets out to get a new job and then finds herself in a dangerous situation. A delivery guy, whom she nicknames "Kinsan," rescues her in the nick-of-time. He helps her get a job at a fast food place. Later, Kazuya informs Tsukushi about Tsukasa leaving for New York City. Hurt that he did not tell her, she confronts Tsukasa which leads to a fight. He attempts to say a proper goodbye later at her job, but gets into a fight with Kinsan and leaves in a huff. The next day, Kinsan invites Tsukushi out to cheer her up. On her way home from her "date," she runs into Tsukasa, newly arrived from New York with a magazine exposing Kinsan as Seinosuke Amakusa, a parliament member's son.
Tsukushi's mother walks up, while Tsukasa is yelling at Seinosuke. She then drags Tsukasa to their house and Tsukushi follows after them. At home, her parents force her to sleep in the same room as Tsukasa. The next day, Tsukushi meets Seinosuke by her school's gate. He manages to clear the misunderstanding and invites her to a party. Tsukushi asks Rui to attend the party with her. There they run into Tsukasa. On stage, Seinosuke makes an annoucement that he does not want to be a politician like his father. He then walks up to Tsukushi and asks her to be his girlfriend. Tsukasa then punches him, resulting in a brawl which is then covered by the national media. Later, Tsukushi learns her father has lost one million yen given to him by a loanshark. In order to save her family, she borrows the money from Tsukasa, who only agrees if she enters the Teen of Japan contest.
After meeting fellow TOJ contestant Ayano Kurimaki, Tsukushi starts to feel discouraged about her chances of winning. She attempts to leave Tsukasa's house, but he catches her and calls her coward. He ultimately convinces her to keep going. The contest is held on Christmas Eve. In the first round, Tsukushi impresses the judges with her "unique" fashion choices though the audience has the opposite reaction. During a break in the dressing room, Tsukushi learns that Ayano is Seinosuke's fiancée and has come to Japan to fight her in the competition. The contestants' English ability is tested in the second round. Tsukushi scrapes by due to luck and her thoughtfulness. She and Ayano are selected as the finalists. Tsukushi promises Seinosuke that she will give him an answer once the contest is over. The two girls then head into the third and final round.
In the final round, the girls play with a group of children to determine the winner. Tsukushi befriends Ryusuke Hayama, who reminds her of Tsukasa. The judges crown Ayano the winner, when the children refuse to choose just one of the girls. Tsukushi is granted a special prize. Tsukasa later asks her to spend Christmas with him in exchange of the rest of the loan. The next day, Tsukushi brings Ryusuke along after he shows up at her doorstep. Annoyed at first, Tsukasa softens a bit after learning Ryusuke's parents are overseas. Later, Tsukushi asks "Why do you do so much for me?" Thinking the answer obvious, Tsukasa refuses to answer and yells at her instead. After learning about the fight, Sojiro decides to do something about the couple. He and Akira invite Tsukushi and Yuki to Canada. She hesitates to accept at first, but decides to go after another argument with Tsukasa.
Tsukushi arrives in Vancouver, annoyed that Yuriko and her gang have invited themselves along. She later tricks Tsukushi into going out during a blizzard by lying that she saw Yuki go outside. Tsukasa finds Tsukushi and carries her to the safety of a cabin. He tells her to take off her clothes in order to avoid frostbite. She refuses at first, but eventually listens to reason. They then lay next to the fire in each other's arms. After returning to the house, Tsukushi decides to get revenge on the girls. This is sidelined when Shizuka makes a surprise appearance. Tsukushi and the others leave her alone with Rui to talk. Back in Japan, a fortuneteller gives Tsukushi a foreboding message about Tsukasa. She and Yuki later go to a middle school reunion. Coincidentally, Tsukasa is there and ends up attacking an old friend of hers out of jealousy.
An explosive fight occurs between Tsukushi and Tsukasa. It ends with her saying "I hate you!" and running out of the building. The next day, Tsukushi goes to see her friend to apologize. There she meets his younger brother Junpei Oribe, who also attends Eitoku. She later meets him at school, though he is wearing a subtle disguise so she does not recognize him at first. Tsukushi finds him extremely odd, but accepts when he asks her to be friends. That afternoon, she learns he is a pro-model. He ropes her into taking pictures with him, one of which makes magazine cover. Tsukasa confronts Tsukushi, which leads to a fight between him and Junpei. He tells Tsukushi that he loves her. She is so shocked that she does not say anything in reply. A few days later, Tsukushi is given another red card and becomes a target once again. Junpei vows to protect her.
After saving Tsukushi from bullies, Junpei with some accomplices kidnaps her and brings her to a derelict building. He attempts to explain his reason for wanting revenge on Tsukasa. They send a message to Tsukasa for him to come alone. When Tsukasa arrives, the guys start beating him up. Junpei goes to hit him with a chair, but Tsukushi throws herself in front of him. After that, Junpei finally leaves with his men. Tsukushi asks Tsukasa why he did not fight back. He responds "This was the only way to protect you," before passing out. Tsukushi wakes up in the hospital from a nightmare of Tsukasa dying. She goes to his room, where she admits to being scared of him really dying. Junpei enters the room and apologizes to Tsukushi, but she is not ready to forgive him. Later, Tsukasa invites her to his birthday party with plans to introduce her to his mother, Kaede Domyoji.
The F4 try to lie to Tsukasa's mother about Tsukushi being a daughter to a company president. The act does not last long, which leads to the couple escaping the party. Tsukushi finds herself on Tsukasa's family's yacht. There she gives him his birthday gift, which makes him so happy that he kisses her. The next morning, Kaede visits Tsukushi to offer her money in exchange for her giving up on Tsukasa. Tsukushi's mother rejects the offer, feeling that fifty million is "peanuts." Later, Kaede's secretary Nishida brings Tsukushi to her hotel, where she announces Tsukasa's engagement to Shigeru Okawahara. Tsukasa soon runs away but accidentally grabbed Shigeru's hand instead of Tsukushi's. Livid, Tsukushi refuses to believe it was a mistake. Shigeru later comes to their school and runs into her and Tsukasa. She punches him, declaring "As your fiancée, it's my job to train you well!"
Having decided to pursue Tsukasa, Shigeru recruits Tsukushi to help her. At first, Tsukushi thinks of Shigeru as pushy though she grows to like her. She later tells Tsukasa "I think someone like [Shigeru] is what you need," which causes him to slap her. That night, he wonders whether it is time to give up. Tsukasa subsequently asks Shigeru to go out with him, promising to "learn to love [her]." Tsukushi decides to take this as a new start. However, Shigeru visits her everyday for advice on dating Tsukasa. She throws herself into her job after she sees them kiss. Tsukushi is out with Rui, when she runs into the couple on a date. Shigeru ropes her into going to her family's villa. There Tsukushi tells Shigeru that she is happy for her though she is actually hurting. Later that night, Tsukasa reveals to Shigeru that he cannot love her, saying "You're not the one."
Tsukushi returns home the next morning to learn that her parents and younger brother are moving to a fishing village. They decide to leave her behind so she can continue attending Eitoku. After her family leaves, she receives a visit from Shigeru who reveals that the engagement has been called off since Tsukasa still loves her. Akira, Sojiro, and Rui come to celebrate her living alone the following day. They are met with another surprise guest, Kaede. Tsukushi ends up standing up to Kaede, even declaring "I'm going to fight that lady." However, things take a turn when her apartment floor collapses. Now homeless, Tsukushi runs into Seinosuke who takes her to his place. She later wakes up at the Domyojis', having been brought there by Tsubaki. Then Tsubaki invites Tsukushi to stay. She is against it at first, but agrees to it if she work there as a maid.
- Main article: List of Boys Over Flowers chapters
Boys Over Flowers was serialized in the manga magazine, Margaret from March 1992 to August 2003. The series reached thirty-six volumes in length by the end of its run. Kamio penned a special chapter of the series in 2006 and another two in 2008, leading to the release of the thirty-seventh volume. Shueisha published the entirety of the manga in Japan, and later reprinted it into twenty volumes for the complete edition (kanzenban). It is licensed in North America by Viz Media.
The manga won the 41st Shogakukan Manga Award in the shojo category. It is currently the best-selling shojo manga of all time, having sold over 53 million copies with a total 61 million copies in circulation. Boys Over Flowers is also one of the best-selling franchises in Japan.
- Main article: Boys Over Flowers Season 2
Yoko Kamio began a sequel to the series titled, Boys Over Flowers Season 2 on February 15, 2015. It was simultaneously released on Shueisha's Shonen Jump+, and Viz's website and app. The series ended on December 22, 2019 and was collected into fifteen volumes. In 2018, it was adapted into a Japanese drama starring Hana Sugisaki and Sho Hirano.
The sequel follows a new generation of students at Eitoku, including the series' leads Oto Edogawa and Haruto Kaguragi. It is set about three years after the ending of the original series. Along with frequent mentions of the F4, several characters from Boys Over Flowers make appearances.
- See also: List of adaptations of Boys Over Flowers
- Main article: Hana Yori Dango (drama CDs)
Hana Yori Dango was adapted into a series of three audio dramas, also known as CD books, from July 1993 to July 1994. All three were released on both cassette and CD. The audio drama starred Takuya Kimura as Rui with Chisa Yokoyama as Tsukushi and Takumi Nishio as Tsukasa. It was Kimura's first voice acting role, though he was already famous for being in the boy band, SMAP. Kamio sat in for part of the recording and was happy with the results.
- Main article: Hana Yori Dango (film)
The first live-action adaptation of Hana Yori Dango was a film released in theaters on August 19, 1995. It starred Yuki Uchida as Tsukushi, Shosuke Tanihara as Tsukasa and Naohito Fujiki as Rui. The film was released on video cassette in 1997 and DVD in 2001. It was also released in a box set with five other shojo film adaptations.
- Main article: Boys Over Flowers (anime)
The anime was directed by Shigeyasu Yamauchi and produced by Toei Animation, Asatsu-DK, and ABC TV. It originally aired from September 8, 1996 to August 31, 1997 for fifty-one episodes. The anime has been released on video cassette in 1997 and on DVD in 2006. It was licensed for released in North America by Viz in 2003, and by Discotek Media in 2015.
Hana Yori Dango: The Movie, a short film, premiered on March 8, 1997 at the Spring Toei Anime Fair. The film is set in an alternate universe, where Tsukushi is an aspiring dancer at a studio in New York City.
- Main article: Meteor Garden
Meteor Garden was the first television drama adapted from Boys Over Flowers. It was produced by Angie Chai and directed by Tsai Yueh Hsun. Barbie Hsu, Jerry Yan, and Vic Chou starred as the series' leads Shan Cai (Tsukushi), Dao Ming Si (Tsukasa), and Hua Ze Lei (Rui). The series aired on the free-to-air CTS from April 12, 2001 to August 16, 2001. It was a breakout success.
- Main article: Hana Yori Dango (Japanese drama)
A Japanese adaptation of Hana Yori Dango aired from October 21, 2005 to December 16, 2005 for nine episodes. Mao Inoue, Jun Matsumoto, Shun Oguri, Shota Matsuda, and Tsuyoshi Abe starred in the drama as Tsukushi and the F4 members. The drama had high ratings with it peaking at 22.4%.
Hana Yori Dango Returns, a sequel, was released in 2007 for broadcast on TBS. The sequel also enjoyed high ratings, peaking at 27.6% for the final episode. In 2008, a film sequel titled, Hana Yori Dango Final, premiered. Final was a box office success in Japan, earning over seven billion yen. The adaptation of Boys Over Flowers Season 2 is also a sequel to TBS's Hana Yori Dango series.
- Main article: Boys Over Flowers (Korean drama)
In late 2008, a South Korean television adaptation of Boys Over Flowers was announced. The drama aired from January 5, 2009 to March 31, 2009 for twenty-five episodes on KBS2. It starred Ku Hye-sun (Geum Jan-di), Lee Min-ho (Gu Jun-pyo), Kim Hyun-joong (Yoon Ji-hoo), Kim Bum (So Yi-jung), and Kim Joon (Song Woo-bin).
- Main article: Meteor Garden (2018 drama)
In April 2017, Angie Chai, who produced the first Meteor Garden, announced her plans to remake the series. The main cast of the drama was unveiled at a press conference in Shanghai on November 9, including Shen Yue as Shan Cai and Dylan Wang as Dao Ming Si. Chai began the post-production process shortly after it concluded filming on March 22, 2018.
OtherThe series concept has become popular among many countries, inspiring several unlicensed and/or loosely-based adaptations:
- Siapa Takut Jatuh Cinta (2002; Indonesia): loosely-based on Boys Over Flowers and Meteor Garden, it was produced by Prima Entertainment. It has been accused of plagiarism by fans and reporters. The series was remade in 2017 as Siapa Takut Jatuh Cinta Reborn.
- Meteor Shower (2009; China): the series was prompted by the success of the Korean version. The producers were unable to obtain the copyright because of a clause in Shueisha's contract with the Korean production.
- Boys Before Friends (2013; America): the production did not disclosed if they obtained the rights to Boys Over Flowers or not. However, they have since claimed the work is original and not based on the manga.
- Kaisi Yeh Yaariaan (2014; India): an Indian teen soap that is loosely adapted from the Korean version. It shares the premise of Boys Over Flowers, but later diverges into several different story lines.
- Main article: Hana Yori Dango: The Musical
Hana Yori Dango: The Musical was first announced in April 2015. The main cast was revealed on August 19, 2015. Ririka Kato won the role of Tsukushi out of 3,000 other participants, while Yuya Matsushita, Jin Shirasu, Mackenyu, and Ryuji Kamiyama were cast as the F4. Further members of the cast were announced in September 2015, including Nao Furuhata, Ryo Kimura, and Nami Tamaki.
- Main article: Boys Over Flowers: The Musical
A Korean adaptation of the Japanese musical was first announced in November 2016. Yumi Suzuki (director), Go Aoki (scriptwriter), and Akimitsu Honma (composer) all returned from the original production. The musical premiered on February 24, 2017 at Hongik Daehangno Art Center in Seoul.
The star-studded cast of the musical was revealed in January 2017, including singers J-Min and Min alternating the part of Tsukushi. Tsukasa was played by Lee Chang-sub, Ken, and Kim Ji-hui, while Lee Sung-min, Jeong Hui, and Kim Tae-oh portrayed Rui.
- Main article: Hana Yori Dango (2019 musical)
In January 2019, the Takarazuka Revue announced its plans to stage a musical of Boys Over Flowers. Kosaku Noguchi is set write and direct. It was performed by the Revue's Flower Troupe and starred Rei Yuzuka as Tsukasa. Mirei Shiroki portrayed Tsukushi with Kei Yunami, Asuka Seino, and Raito Kinami as the other F4 members.
Video gamesThree video games based on Hana Yori Dango have been produced:
- Hana Yori Dango: Another Love Story: released for the Game Boy Color on July 27, 2001. The game's story is based directly on the manga.
- Hana Yori Dango: Koi Seyo Otome!: a dating simulation (or otome game), where the player can date the members of the F4. It was published by Konami on July 10, 2008 for the Nintendo DS.
- Hana Yori Dango: F4 and First Kiss: also an otome game, it was released by Voltage as an app for smartphones on July 3, 2015. Voltage ended the game's service in December 2017.
- See also: Category:Books
- Hana Yori Dango: Romantic Story: a series of fifteen light novels by Shimako Takeuchi and published from 1994 to 1998.
- Hana Yori Dango Illustrations: an art book published in 1995 by Shueisha. It features illustrations previously only available in Margaret and other media during the early 1990s.
- Hana Yori Dango Love Psychology Analyzed: a book written by Sachiko Aoki and the "Hana Yori Dango" analysis committee. It was released in October 2001 and explores the relationships in Boys Over Flowers.
- Hana Yori Dango FF: a fan book dedicated to Boys Over Flowers The book was published in October 2003, shortly after the end of the manga. It features detailed character profiles and color illustrations.
- Hana Yori Dango Step Up English Book: an English learning book by Kogyoku Ikeda with the cooperation of Yoko Kamio. It teaches the reader English by utilizing plot and pictures from Boys Over Flowers.
Hana Yori Dango is named after the Japanese proverb 花より団子, which literally means "dumplings (dango) rather than flowers." It refers to people who "value substance over style." Furthermore, it alludes to people's preference for eating over looking at the flowers during a cherry blossom viewing picnic (hanami). The manga's title is spelled 花より男子, which changes the meaning to "Boys Over Flowers." 男子 means "young man" and is usually read as danshi. Author Yoko Kamio changed the reading to dango to make it a homophone of the proverb.
- Teixeira, Lauren (June 25, 2019). "Boys Over Flowers". Current Affairs.
- Yoshida, Hitomi (January 2011). "The Localisation of the Hana Yori Dango Text: Plural Modernities in East Asia". New Voices: A Journal of Emerging Scholars of Japanese Studies in Australia and New Zealand.
- Mockett, Marie Mutsuki (March 28, 2011). "Head Over Heels for 'Boys Over Flowers'". National Public Radio.
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